Adrian Rogers - Kingdom Authority
Be finding Ephesians chapter 1 as we begin this series on "Kingdom Authority," and I'm very, very grateful for the truth that we're going to be sharing together, and if this truth does not light your fire, your wood is wet. What a wonderful, wonderful truth we have to discover to deploy today, and that is the truth concerning kingdom authority. Our friend Jack Hayford has written a beautiful song entitled "Majesty"! And that song begins, "Majesty, worship His majesty. Unto Jesus, be all glory, honor, and praise. Majesty, kingdom authority, flow through His throne, unto His own, His anthem raise".
Kingdom authority, and I want us to take that phrase today, "kingdom authority," and I want us to look at it. There's not a more beautiful and exciting and wonderful truth than the truth concerning kingdom authority and what it means to us. Now most of us have no problem accepting the fact that Jesus Christ is King and He has authority, but what we fail to understand is that He, our King, has given that kingdom authority to His subjects, and we too, with Him, may exercise kingdom authority. That thought, listen, that thought is staggering!
Now authority in itself, if you talk about authoritarianism, is sort of an ugly word, a repulsive word, and people don't like authoritarian figures. As a matter of fact, you see these bumper stickers ever so often: "Question Authority". And there's some truth in that. I mean, "Who says so? Why should I do this or that"? But after you have questioned authority, and you find out it is His authority, then get under it and get in on it, and learn how to exercise kingdom authority. Now there's a difference between authority and power. Power deals with brute force. Authority deals with right. There're two different words that are translated power in our King James Version. Jesus said in Luke 10:19, "Behold, I give you power over all the power of the enemy".
The first word is the word exousia which literally means authority, and Jesus is literally saying, "Behold, I give you authority over all of the power, the force, of the enemy". The word authority literally means the official right. You might, if you're taking notes, put, "Authority equals official right". When Jesus was preaching and teaching, the scribes and the Pharisees asked Him in Luke 20 verse 2, "Who gave You this authority"? That is, "Who gave You this official right"? Now authority is conferred; power is innate. You have whatever power you have or lack of it innately, but authority goes beyond power. It goes beyond force. The authority is official right.
Now you say, "Pastor, I'm already getting confused". Well, just stay hitched, and you're going to learn something very, very wonderful. Back in 1940, there were three physicists: Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard and Eugene Wigner. These physicists were working actually in a makeshift laboratory, in a handball court, in the University of Chicago, and they developed a process to split the atom. The Atomic Age began. They took Einstein's formula: e=mc squared, and they said with that formula we can unleash the power of the atom, and so they found out a way to split the atom and multiply the energy in that atom six million to one. We entered into the Atomic Age. Well, my prayer today is that we will discover a greater force than that, and that is kingdom authority today, and that God will help us to apply that to our hearts.
Now have you ever seen a real king? Well, if you haven't, look up here. You're looking at one. Have you ever seen a Baptist priest? Well, if you haven't, look up here. You're looking at one. But also look at your brother or your sister on either side of you. They are a king and they are a priest, and then go stand in front of the mirror when you get home, and say, "Well, lookee there. There's a king and there's a priest in that mirror across from me". The Bible says in Revelation 1 verse 6 that, "When we are redeemed, God has made us kings and priests unto Him".
One of my favorite stories our former pastor used to tell, Dr. Robert G. Lee, was on a train one time. When he was riding, he made up his mind that he was tired; he didn't want to talk to anybody. And he said, "I sat next to a man who was wearing clerical robes, and this man had his collar on," as Dr. Lee said, "backward". That is, he had one of these white bands around his neck. Dr. Lee said, "That's alright". He said, "If he wants to walk into his collar when I back into mine, that's fine. I don't have any problem with that". But he said, "I just wasn't in the mood to talk, and after a while the man turned to me, and that man said to me, 'What do you do?'" Dr. Lee said, "I'm a king". He looked him up and down. He said, "A what"? He said, "I'm a king"! He said, "Are you serious"? He said, "Yes," and he said, "I'm also a priest". He said, "You don't look like a priest". "Well," he said, "I am a priest". He said, "I know what you are. You're a Baptist preacher"!
Well, folks, I want to tell you that the children of God are kings and priests, and God made us that way; many of us don't live like it. And so what we're going to do today is to learn how to exercise kingdom authority that has been given to us by our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Now let me say this. I want to say three things today about kingdom authority, and this is to set the stage for the rest of these messages that will extend for a long time. Kingdom authority was graciously given to Adam. Let's begin to read in God's Word here in Ephesians 1 verse 15 through verse 23. The Apostle Paul is writing to the Ephesian church, and he says, "Wherefore I also, after I heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus, and love to all saints, cease not to give thanks for you, making mention of you in my prayers; that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him".
Now, folks, I could just pull over and park right there. Paul is praying for this church, and he says, "Oh, that the God of glory would give to you the spirit of wisdom and revelation and knowledge of Him". That's what I'm trying to help us to have today, "The spirit of wisdom and revelation and knowledge of Him". God's people perish for a lack of knowledge, and he goes on to say, "I'm praying for you that, 'The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of His calling,'" and the word hope means divine certainty of His calling, "and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints. And what is the exceeding greatness of His power to usward who believe, according to the working of His mighty power which He wrought in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and set Him," that is, Christ, "at His own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: and hath put all things under His feet, and gave Him to be the head over all things," now listen, "to the church, which is His body, the fullness of Him that filleth all in all".
There's so much there; we could spend 10,000 years discoursing on it and never get all of that truth that is there in this particular passage. Now what Paul is saying to this Ephesian church, "You're saved! I'm glad you're saved. Now my prayer is that God will open your eyes to the kingdom authority that is yours through your salvation in the Lord Jesus Christ". Three things I want you to learn about kingdom authority. Number one, it was graciously given to Adam. Number two, it was legally lost by Adam. Number three, it was righteously regained by Christ and given to the church. Now that's simple, isn't it? It was, it was graciously given to Adam. When God made Adam and Eve and put them in the Garden of Eden, God gave to Adam and Eve kingdom authority. He made them to rule on this Earth.
Put in your margin Genesis chapter 1 and verse 26 to verse 28, "And God said, 'Let Us make man.'" You say, "Pastor, why is that plural? 'Let Us make man?'" Because God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit are speaking together. This is the Holy Trinity in council. "And God said, 'Let Us make man in Our image.'" Well, now, in God's image? Does God have dominion? Yes, He does. Does God rule? Yes, He does. Does God have authority? Yes, He does, "Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness, and let them have dominion," underscore that, "Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the, the cattle, and over all the Earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the Earth".
When God created Adam in the Garden of Eden, God made Adam a king. God made Adam one who was to have dominion. This word dominion means to tread upon; that is, whatever is beneath him, all of this creation is to be beneath Adam's feet. He was to control and master the resources of this Earth. Now put this in your margin, too. We're just talking about how this dominion was given to the first man, Adam. It was graciously, gloriously given. In Psalm 8 and verse 6, David is talking about mankind; he's talking about us, and this is what he said that God's original intent was. Psalm 8 verse 6, "Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands, and hast put all things under his feet". That's the original plan. That's why we were made. God made us to have dominion. Do you believe that? Okay. Now you see, this kingdom authority was graciously given.
Now here's the second thing. It was legally lost; not just lost, but legally lost. Now you're in Ephesians chapter 1. Let's just go on into chapter 2. As I've told you before, the chapter divisions are not in the original manuscripts. They're just there to keep preachers from preaching too long. So in chapter 2 verses 1 through 3, "And you," now he's been talking about Jesus who's been exalted above all principality and power, and then he says, "And you hath He quickened," that word means made alive, "who were dead in trespasses and sin; wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air". Now he's saying, "You were dead in sins. You were following the prince of this world", that is, the devil, "The prince of the power of the air. The spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others".
What happened to mankind? How did this thing get garbled? I mean, how did it get turned on its head? God made us to have dominion, but He said, "You were dead in your sins. You're following Satan. You're walking according to the course of the prince of the air, the spirit that now worketh in disobedience". Well, you remember last week I talked about how Lucifer, the son of the morning, became Satan, the father of the night, how that bright shining angel that we read about in the book of Ezekiel rebelled against God? He was filled with pride and arrogancy. Do you remember that? And he was cast out of Heaven; he fell. He was banished from Heaven.
Jesus said in Luke 10:18, "Behold, I saw Satan as lightning fall from Heaven". But now the devil, who fell from Heaven, now has turned his attention to man. Satan, in the form of a serpent, which literally means a shining one, remember he's an angel of light, as a shining one came into the Garden of Eden, and now he begins to tempt Adam and Eve, and what is the temptation? He tempts Adam and Eve to secure for themselves what he himself had tried to secure in Heaven. He tempts them to be as God, to be like God. What Satan failed to accomplish in Heaven he tempts Adam and Eve to accomplish on this Earth, and Adam believed a lie, Eve believed a lie, and they chose against Almighty God, and when they did, God was dethroned in Adam's will, in Adam's heart.
Remember we said: authority derives from power. God Almighty has the power; He gave the right to rule to Adam, but Adam legally forfeited that right. He listened to Satan's lies, he believed the lies of Satan, and he dethroned God, but when he dethroned God he did not really enthrone himself. What he did was to enthrone Satan. He became a slave of Satan. Now here's what the Bible says about that. Put this in your margin, Romans chapter 6 and verse 16, "Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey"? When Adam and Eve began to obey Satan, what they did they yielded themselves to Satan, and Romans 6 tells us that when you yield yourself to someone, you become their slave. The word servant is literally the word bondslave.
That's what it is in the Greek language. Listen to it, "Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are"? Let's read it this way, "Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his slaves ye are to whom you obey"? Now what happened is this authority was gloriously given, but it was legally lost, and now Satan, who failed to achieve a throne in Heaven, now has a throne in the heart of man, and the war that Satan lost in Heaven, he has now won on Earth. He now has enthroned himself over Adam. Adam has forfeited his dominion. He has given it over to Satan. He delivered it to Satan.
Now here's a very key verse, don't miss this verse, it is Luke chapter 4 and verse 6. Jesus began His earthly ministry after His baptism by going into the wilderness, and there, as we're going to see later on, He had a spiritual battle with Satan in the wilderness; and one of the things that Satan did was to endeavor to tempt Jesus, or endeavored to tempt Jesus to worship him; that is, for Jesus to worship Satan. Satan wanted Adam to worship him; he wants Jesus to worship him; he wants the universe to worship him. Now here's what Satan said to Jesus in Luke 4:6. Don't miss it, "And the devil said unto Him, 'All this power will I give unto Thee, and the glory of them,'" he's talking about the kingdoms of this world, "All this power will I give unto Thee, and the glory of them," now listen to this, "for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will give it".
"It was delivered to me". Jesus never said, "Oh, no, it wasn't". He never said that, because it was delivered to Satan and Jesus knew it. God gave that authority to Adam; Adam gave it to Satan; and Satan said, "I'll give it to You, Jesus, if You'll just worship me". "It was delivered to me. It was delivered to me". Listen, this authority was graciously given. It was legally lost. Adam became a slave of Satan, and Adam lost his legal right to rule. Adam's kingdom authority was gone, and now as we see in Ephesians chapter 2 verses 1 and 2, Adam and his children have been dethroned, they are spiritually dead, and they have no longer legal authority.
Therefore, how does the Bible describe Satan? Second Corinthians 4 verse 4. He's described as, "The god of this world". Why? Adam was to have that authority, but he gave it to Satan. How is Satan described in Ephesians chapter 6 verse 12? The one we do battle with, "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities". You know what the word principalities means? It means kingdoms. "Against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places". Authority was graciously given. Kingdom authority was legally lost.
Now you ready for the good part? Alright, now here's the good part. Here's why Jesus came. That authority has been righteously regained, righteously regained. I said legally lost; I say righteously regained. I didn't say lost and regained. I said legally lost, righteously regained. If you don't understand that, you'll miss the whole thing about kingdom authority. This is the reason the Apostle Paul is praying that their eyes would be opened.
Now notice he says in Ephesians 1 verses 17 to 21, "I'm praying that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Him: the eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of His calling, and what the riches of the glory of His inheritance in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of His power to usward who believe, according to the working of His mighty power which He wrought in Christ when He raised Him from the dead, and set Him at His own right hand in the heavenly places, far above all principality". Remember Ephesians 6:12 says, "We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, and powers," but Jesus is far above that principality. Amen? "Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come".
Now, Lord help me to say this. I just pray you won't miss this. I'm telling you, folks, this is wonderful. Now what happens is this: Jesus Christ left Heaven, came to this Earth, to gain back man's lost estate. Now remember this: it was legally lost; it must be righteously regained. Why doesn't God just kill the devil? Why doesn't God just snatch the authority from Satan and give it back to Adam, and just be done with it? People wonder all the time, "Well, why does God let the devil get away with all that he gets away with"? Remember that it was legally lost; it must be righteously regained. If God were to just step in, snatch authority from Satan, kill the devil, give it back to Adam, that would make a farce of divine justice.
Now God doesn't owe the devil anything, but He owes much to His own holiness, to His own righteousness, to His own law. This is a universe that is run by law, and so, God's plan, don't miss this, folks, don't miss this, God's plan is a man. Now, it centers in a man. How was dominion lost? Well, where was dominion given? It was given to a man. How was it lost? It was lost by a man. How must it be regained? It must be regained; it must be recovered, by a man in order for it to be legally recovered. It was legally given, legally lost; it must be legally recovered. It was given to a man, it was lost by a man; it must be recovered by a man. That's why God became a man. That's why the incarnation. You see, a member of Adam's race must be found to redeem us, but this member of Adam's race must be one upon whom Satan has no legal claim.
Now the Bible says in Romans 6 verse 16, when, "We yield ourselves as slaves, then we're slaves," and a child of slave is a slave also. A child of slaves belongs to the slave holder, the slave owner, and we became slaves of Satan, and all of Adam's children are slaves of Satan. That's what Ephesians chapter 2 verses 1 and 2 tell us. We were children of disobedience. We were children of the disobedient one. Now, yet, our dominion must be regained. It was lost by a man; it must be regained by a man, but that man must be a man upon whom Satan has no legal claims. That's the reason for the virgin birth. Are you listening to me? That's the reason for the virgin birth. That's the reason for Christmas. That's what this whole thing is about. That's the reason that Jesus had to be the virgin-born Son of God! He was not a son of Adam, but he was man of very man. Are you listening?
Now is this getting through? I want you to understand this. Listen to these Scriptures. Put them down big and plain and straight. First Corinthians 15 verses 21 and 22, "For since by man came death," Who was that? Adam, "By man came also the resurrection of the dead". Who was that? Jesus. "By man came death. By man came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die..." Folks, that includes every one of you. "As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive". All of the sons of Adam are dead; all of the sons of Christ are alive. You see, this is the reason for the incarnation. I gave you this verse last week. I hope you'll understand it even more this week.
Hebrews 2 verse 14, listen to it, "Forasmuch then as the children," he's talking about us, the children of Adam, "are partakers of flesh and blood". That is, we're human; we have bodies; we're mankind. "Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, He also Himself," now he's talking about Jesus, "He also Himself likewise took part of the same". That is, Jesus became flesh and blood. Now listen, "That through death He might destroy him that had the power of death," that is, the authority of death, "that is the devil". Is that making sense to you? We were flesh and blood. The dominion was lost by flesh and blood. It was given to flesh and blood. It was lost by flesh and blood. Jesus became flesh and blood that He, "Through death might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil".
A spirit cannot die, but a body can die. He took a body. "The wages of sin is death". When I say a spirit cannot die, I mean a spirit cannot die the physical death that our sins deserve, but, "He took flesh and blood upon Himself". This is the reason for the virgin birth. Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit. Jesus was not a fallen son of Adam. He was, therefore, not a slave of Satan, but yet He was made of a woman. He was a member of the human race. That's so great. That's so wonderful. Satan has absolutely no claim on the Lord Jesus Christ. Had Jesus been born like we were born, He would have been a son of Adam, He would've inherited Adam's sin, He would've been a son of a slave, a slave Himself. Jesus was truly human but at the same time unquestionably divine. When He walked this Earth He was very God of very God and also very man of very man, but He did not defeat Satan as a God. He defeated Satan as a man.
Now if you don't understand that, you don't understand what Christmas is all about. Now He became a man that He took flesh and blood, because it was legally lost. It was legally given, legally lost; it must be legally and righteously regained so as not to make a farce of divine justice. Now when Jesus became a man, here's the good part, when Jesus became a man, He overcame Satan, not as God, but as man, as righteous, sinless, holy man, and Jesus, when He defeated Satan, used resources to defeat Satan that were available to Adam in the Garden of Eden: the same resources that Adam could've used in the Garden of Eden.
Now He's going to defeat Satan this way. Now Satan sees Jesus, the virgin-born Son of God. Satan knows what he did to the first Adam, and he says to himself, "Now I must defeat this second Adam, because if I don't defeat Him, He will defeat me, and kingdom authority will be taken away from me. Here's One who has come from Heaven to reclaim Adam's lost estate". So Satan sets out to get Jesus to do what? To sin, to sin, to sin. Satan is an egomaniac. Satan thinks, "Well, I know the pride that was in my heart". He even has the audacity to tempt the virgin-born Son of God. He says to himself, "I got the first Adam to sin. Now I'll get the second Adam to sin, the last One to sin, this last Man, and if I can get Him to sin, I'll have Him in the same position I had the first Adam".
That's the reason for the wilderness temptation you read about, where Satan came to Jesus and he tempted Jesus to sin, because just one sin on the part of Jesus and the whole plan of redemption comes crashing down. Read about it in Luke 4 verses 5 through 8, "And the devil, taking Him up into a high mountain, showed Him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said unto Him, 'All this power will I give Thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will give it. If Thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be Thine.' And Jesus answered and said unto him, 'Get thee behind Me, Satan: for it is written, "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve".'"
Adam lost his estate in a beautiful garden, but Jesus overcome Satan in a wilderness, but how did Jesus overcome Satan? Allen Redpath imagines Jesus saying something like this to Satan. I don't know that He said it, but He could well have said it. "Satan, as God, which I am, I could obliterate you, but I'm not going to defeat you as God. I'm going to defeat you as man". And the same weapons that belonged to Adam in the Garden of Eden were the weapons that Jesus Christ used. What were they? The Spirit of God and the Word of God. Luke chapter 4 verse 1 says, "He was led of the Spirit". Jesus was filled with the Spirit, anointed with the Spirit at His baptism, and then Jesus took the Word of God. Satan said Luke 1 verses 7 and 8, "Bow down and worship me". Jesus said, "It is written, 'Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God and Him only.'"
The anointing of the Spirit and the authority of the Word; that's the way Jesus won this battle, and that's the way Jesus continues to win the battle. You see, folks, it was as man that Jesus defeated Satan. Satan hounded Him to Gethsemane; I wish I had time to talk about that. Then bloody Calvary. That was the worst mistake that Satan ever made. The hounds of Hell were baying for the blood of Jesus. Satan thought, "Surely He'll not do this. He'll not pay this price. He will not take the sin of the world. He'll not pay for Adam's race. He'll not become the object of the Father's loathing". But in Matthew 26 verse 39, Jesus said in Gethsemane, "Nevertheless not My will but Thine be done".
And in John 19:30, Jesus went on to dark Calvary, and He cried upon that cross, "It is finished". They put Him in that tomb. Satan now marshals all of the forces of Hell to keep Him in that tomb, to keep Him from being raised, because if He comes out of that grave that means that God the Father has accepted the payment that Satan's legal power, his right, has broken! You know on the third day that Jesus came out of that grave and shown to be the Son of God with power, and God raised Him as He walked out of that grave, and Satan's kingdom came crashing down. Then in Matthew 28 verses 18 and 19, the Lord Jesus went out there to the Mount of Olives, and He says to His disciples, "All authority given unto Me," "I've got it now," "in Heaven and in Earth".
He's already had it in Heaven; He now has it on Earth. It has been righteously regained. "Go ye, therefore, go ye, therefore, and teach all nations. I have this authority, and now I am giving it back to you, My sons and daughters". He has ascended to the high hills of glory. Look in Ephesians 1 verse 21, "Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion," that's Satan's lost dominion, "and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come".
Folks, I have run out of time today, but I just want to tell you something now. We are, in this series of messages, going to learn how to get in on that authority that Jesus has graciously given now to the church. It is ours. And Jesus said to His disciples in Luke 10 verse 19, "Behold, I give you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy," that is, over all, I give you authority over all the power of the enemy, "And nothing shall by any means, any means hurt you".
Somebody imagines one demon talking to another demon and they're talking about what Jesus did on the cross; how He spoiled principalities and powers, how Jesus redeemed the sons of men, how Jesus broke Satan's hold on the human race. And these demons were talking about that, how Jesus went down into the grave, and how Jesus came up from the grave, and how He has ascended the high hills of glory, and how He is sitting at the right hand of the majesty on high, and how all of the children of God are in Christ seated and ascended with Him. And one demon says to the other demon, "If those liberal theologians ever really let Jesus out of that grave, and if those Bible preachers ever really explain this to the people, Hell help us, all Heaven will break loose". Amen. "Hell help us. All Heaven will break loose". Jesus said, "All authority is given unto Me. Go ye, therefore. I give you authority over all the power of the enemy". We're going to spend some time discovering kingdom authority, and you can get in on it today by giving your heart to Jesus.
Would you bow your heads in prayer? Heads are bowed and eyes are closed. How many today would say, "Pastor Rogers, I'm absolutely, totally certain by the Word of God, the grace of God, and the Spirit of God, if I died today I'd go straight to Heaven". Now if you're not certain, I'm here to tell you that if you will repent of your sin, trust Jesus Christ by faith as your Lord and Savior, as the Bible says, "Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ," I promise you on the authority of the Word of God, He will save you and He will keep you if you'll trust Him.
Father, I pray today that many in this building will pray and say, "Lord Jesus, come into my heart, forgive my sin, cleanse me, and save me". Now, Lord, help them to trust You with a childlike faith.
If you're not certain that you're saved, would you like to be saved, would you? Would you like to know that you really do have life? Jesus said, "I've come that you might have life". Could I lead you in a prayer? We'll call this prayer the sinner's prayer. And you can pray and accept Christ as your personal Lord and Savior. You can do it right now. Would you pray this prayer?
Dear God, I know that You love me. Thank You for loving me. And I know that You want to save me. Jesus, You died to save me and You promised to save me if I would trust You. Jesus, I do trust You. I believe You're the Son of God. I believe you paid for my sin with Your blood on the cross. I believe that God raised You from the dead. And now I receive You as my Lord and Savior. Forgive my sin. Cleanse me. Come into my life. Take control of my life and begin today to make me the person You want me to be. And Jesus, give me the courage to make it public. Help me never to be ashamed of You. In Your name I pray, Amen.